Navigating the Unprecedented: A Comprehensive Timeline and Analysis of the Impact of COVID-19 on Muslims in the UK and Juridical Challenges Faced 

Feb 7, 2024 | Articles

Introduction 

In the wake of the unprecedented challenges brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Muslim community in the United Kingdom found itself grappling with a myriad of issues that extended beyond the realm of health concerns. This necessitated a re-evaluation of established norms and practices of Muslims and created a unique set of challenges in maintaining religious obligations, like those related to death, bathing, burials, and prayers in masjids, while also adhering to public health guidelines, 

Scholars grappled with varying perspectives on how to adapt religious practices to the new normal imposed by the pandemic. Debates ensued, and different scholars offered contrasting views on issues ranging from closing masjids to the proper procedures for handling deceased individuals in light of the infectious nature of the virus. 

In response to this complex landscape, Ifta students at Whitethread have documented some of the diverse rulings and opinions that emerged during this period. Keeping in mind the guidance provided by the UK government and health specialists, our objective was to create a historical document that encapsulates the evolving perspectives during this unprecedented time. 

While we have not necessarily stated our chosen stance on issues in this document, we did provide our guidance and views across various platforms, some which are referenced at the end of this document 

This document aspires to be more than a compilation of legal opinions; it seeks to be a historical record, capturing a unique moment in time when masjids faced closures on an unprecedented scale. We hope that this document will serve as a valuable resource, enabling future generations to understand and learn from the challenges faced by the Muslim community during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Masjid Closure

Before the government regulations mandating the closure of masjids, the decision to close these places of worship led to animated discussions and strong opinions amongst the Muslim community. The absence of clear government guidance added to the confusion. 

Opinions were divided into three main categories: 

• Those advocating for the closure of masjids to protect everyone, asserting that those insisting on keeping them open were disconnected from the ground reality and could be held responsible for any resulting deaths. The main arguments included the importance of heeding the advice given by medical professionals as they are the experts in this matter, similar to how non-scholars should not be passing religious verdicts, scholars need to turn to the advice of health experts on Covid. Verses from the Qurʾān and prophetic narrations were cited that highlighted the significance of exercising caution and avoiding situations that could endanger oneself and others. 

• Those arguing that masjids must remain open, citing verses of the Qurʿān and prophetic narrations warning those who prevent others from visiting the houses of Allah. They emphasised the significance of the role masjids play in being places for worship, seeking spiritual fulfilment and wellbeing. Masjids are places where the mercy of Allah descends, which the world particularly needed during Covid. Proponents of this opinion questioned why masjids should be closed while other establishments, like shopping centres and pubs, remained open. This group also highlighted the absence of historical precedent in Islam for closing masjids

• Those suggesting that masjids should remain open, until the government mandates closure, but individuals over 70 years old, the ill, and other vulnerable people should remain at home and not attend the masjids

Unique Gathering of Scholars 

On Saturday, the 21st of March 2020, a significant congregation of more than thirty senior scholars convened at Jamiatul Ilm wal Huda in Blackburn. The assembly served as a forum for various opinion holders, and following extensive deliberations, a consensus was reached. Subsequently, a statement was made public that, while masjids should avoid full closure, they could temporarily close to the public in the wake of the pandemic. The scholars advised to allow a limited number of individuals to continue congregational prayers inside the masjid premises and that those praying at home should perform Ẓuhr instead of Jumuʿah. 

Government Mandates Closure 

Within a week of this gathering, the government mandated the closure of all religious institutions including masjids, churches, synagogues, temples, etc. The response from the Muslim community to the government-mandated closure varied as follows: 

• Some masjids closed completely with no congregational prayers 

• Some designated only a few members of the local community to hold a congregation 

• Some continued to allow small congregations of 20 – 30 regular attendees 

• Lectures and other broadcasts were allowed from many masjids 

• The adhān was allowed to be broadcasted in some communities through loudspeakers as a special concession for Jumuʿah and Maghrib prayers only during Ramaḍān. 

Masjids Reopening for Individual Prayer

Two weeks after the mandated closure, the government allowed places of worship to reopen for individual worship but not for congregational prayer. Consequently, the response varied among masjids during this period: 

• Some masjids opened for individual worship for all prayer times 

• Other masjids adopted a selective approach, opening their doors for specific prayer times or particular hours of the day when they could effectively manage hygiene protocols such as hand sanitisation, face mask usage, individual prayer mat provisions, and the enforcement of social distancing measures 

• Some decided to remain closed altogether due to the lack of resources to man the smooth flow of worshippers since the trustees would legally be responsible if government guidelines were not adhered to 

• Some refused to open in protest of the government’s ban on congregational prayers, believing that the authorities had misunderstood the nature of Muslim worship, which stands in stark contrast to congregational church worship. For example, in Muslim congregational ritual prayer, there is no requirement for face-to-face interaction 

• Notably, even by Friday the 24th of July, approximately four months into the pandemic, a number of masjids continued to abstain from reopening, even for Jumuʿah prayers. Their apprehension stemmed from the belief that reopening was still unsafe and they opted to await the conclusion of the pandemic 

Masjids Reopening for Congregational Prayer

Masjids in the UK were permitted to reopen from Saturday 4th July for congregational prayers. They opened with various self-imposed conditions: 

Issues with no juridical significance Issues with juridical significance 
Worshippers needed to bring their own prayer mats. Some masjids provided disposable mats Many masjids disallowed sunnah prayers at the masjid while few allowed it 
No access to Qur‟ans and other books in the masjid Alcohol based hand sanitisers at the entrance 
No access to toilets No shaking hands 
Shoe racks were not allowed to be used in some masjids. Instead, worshippers needed to bring their own bag for shoes. Some masjids provided bags In some masjids, there was only a short Arabic khuṭbah with no English (or other local language) talk beforehand 
One-way system of traffic flow in some masjids No one with symptoms allowed 
Temperature checks at the entrance of some masjids Those over 70 years of age not allowed 
Some masjids took information such as names and addresses from worshippers for Jumuʿah prayers and some for all prayers Praying spaced apart
Closing doors of the masjid when quota was filled 
Face mask, initially not mandated by law, but imposed by some masjids. Later, from 8th August 2020, wearing a mask was a government requirement for all worshippers in masjids as well as in other places of worship. 
No access to wuḍūʾ area in many masjids 

Jumuʿah Prayers 

Discussions arose concerning the necessity of general permission (idhn ʿām) for the validity of Jumuʿah in the masjid within these unique circumstances. It was questioned whether conducting Jumuʿah behind closed doors with a limited congregation was valid, as some masjids were performing the jumuʿah prayer with only four individuals. Many masjids did not perform the Jumuʿah prayer at all. Some initially took the weaker opinion of Imām Abū Yūsuf, which allows for Jumuʿah with three congregants but then retracted from this. 

As masjids began reopening for prayers, some implemented a website or app-based booking system for Jumuʿah, while others, possibly due to not being well-versed with technology, relied on a first-come first-served approach. When the capacity was reached, they had congregants wait for the next congregation or regretfully turned people away. 

Many masjids introduced multiple Jumuʿah congregations to accommodate for more worshippers with social distancing. However, some masjids opted for a single congregation, which unfortunately left out many worshippers. 

Many people conducted Jumuʿah congregations in larger private spaces such as businesses or public areas like parks. In some instances, parks witnessed the unique sight of multiple Jumuʿah congregations occurring simultaneously to manage the high number of worshippers. 

Some scholars encouraged people to perform Jumuʿah in their homes provided a minimum of four mature male attendees were present. Some insisted that they were members of the same household to minimise the risk of virus transmission. To facilitate this practice, concise khuṭbahs were published, containing the essential elements necessary for fulfilling the requirements of a khuṭbah. Additionally, key rulings related to Jumuʿah were also disseminated for the benefit of those conducting Jumuʿah at home. 

However, the prevailing view among scholars was to discourage Jumuʿah at home, even if the minimum requirement of four males was met, emphasising the performance of Ẓuhr instead. Their rationale was rooted in the belief that Jumuʿah, being a communal act of worship, should not be diminished to a household practice. Allowing Jumuʿah at home, they argued, might establish an undesirable precedent for post-pandemic times, where people could possibly forsake Jumuʿah in the masjid in favour of home-based Jumuʿah prayers. They also argued that when Jumuʿah is not feasible, Ẓuhr is the default prayer to be observed, such as in the case of a woman or traveller. Nevertheless, there were differing opinions within the scholarly community, with some conceding that if Jumuʿah was conducted with the minimum required attendees, it would still be valid, while others deemed it invalid. 

Many proponents of performing Ẓuhr at home recommended conducting it as a congregational prayer on Fridays instead of Jumuʿah, while others believed Ẓuhr should be performed individually arguing that Ẓuhr was not allowed in congregation on Fridays. 

Ramaḍān &ʿĪd 

Dispensation of deferring the fasts was given for those individuals who were experiencing symptoms. 

Tarāwīḥ Prayer 

Discussions arose regarding the permissibility of men performing Tarāwīḥ prayers alone in their homes and the appropriate way to conduct these prayers. Some scholars encouraged people to pray at home and recite whatever parts of the Qurʾān they knew. This resulted in many non-ḥuffāẓ leading the prayer. Others even permitted children who were close to the age of maturity to lead prayers based upon a weaker opinion in the Ḥanafī school. This was probably the year that the most tarāwīḥ congregations were ever held in the world at any point in history. 

Some scholars in fact permitted individuals to pray Tarāwīḥ while reciting directly from a physical copy of the Qur‟ān, a practice typically prohibited in the Ḥanafī school. Some even sanctioned praying at home while listening to a recorded Qurʾānic recitation. Others permitted followers to join their local masjid‟s Tarāwīḥ prayers through live broadcasts, with some restricting this to homes situated behind the mosque when facing the qibla. Some went as far as allowing worshipers from anywhere in the world to follow broadcasts from other countries like Saudi Arabia. Some religious leaders even broadcasted their tarāwīḥ from their homes and allowed people to join in virtually. 

Congregation at Home with Women 

A discussion arose whether it was better for women to participate in congregational prayers with the men in their households or to pray individually. Family congregations were strongly encouraged by the majority of scholars and a lot of information and guidance was spread to show the correct method of row formation. There were also discussions whether women were permitted to provide verbal corrections to the imām (whether he was a maḥram or non-maḥram) in the event of recitation errors. Additionally, there were deliberations concerning the feasibility of women joining prayers from a different room within the same house. For instance, if there were two separate living rooms separated by a wall, a sliding door, or an intervening room. 

Sunnah Iʿtikāf for Men at Home 

Discussions emerged about the status of iʿtikāf as a communal requirement (sunnah muʾakkadah ʿalā ‘l-kifāyah) in the current situation. Questions arose regarding whether men staying at home in worship would fulfil this communal requirement, and whether a woman‟s iʿtikāf at home would suffice for the communal responsibility. While some masjids permitted a limited number of individuals to observe iʿtikāf while maintaining social distancing, a consensus was reached that the sunnah iʿtikāf for men would not be considered valid at home during the pandemic. Men were still encouraged to stay at home and engage in worship resembling iʿtikāf

ʿĪd al-Fiṭr Prayer (During Lockdown) 

Various opinions among scholars emerged regarding the performance of ʿĪd prayers at home, with some encouraging it if the minimum number of participants were present, even though they may have previously discouraged home-based Jumuʿah prayers. Others suggested that, similar to Jumuʿah, ʿId prayers should not be conducted at home but would still be valid if performed. Instead of home-based ʿĪd prayers, they encouraged engaging in optional (nafl) prayers. On the contrary, some scholars maintained that ʿĪd prayers at home were invalid. 

Concerns were raised in government and media circles about the possibility of Muslims attempting to hold ʿĪd congregations in various locations despite lockdown measures. While some individuals opted not to perform ʿĪd prayers at all, many chose to do so in parks or other communal areas such as businesses. A few masjids also conducted ʿĪd prayers with a limited number of congregation members. 

ʿId al-Aḍḥā Prayer (Post Lockdown) 

Masjids that had reopened for congregational prayers also held ʿĪd prayer. Most of these masjids held numerous congregations leading to an unprecedented number of ʿĪd prayer across the country. Some councils in the UK imposed a lockdown just before ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā as they feared the virus was rapidly spreading in their constituency. While some masjids adhered to these restrictions, others believed it was unjust and still proceeded with ʿĪd prayers. In certain areas, masjid authorities sought special permission from local councils to conduct larger outdoor ʿĪd congregations abiding by the social distancing rules and the reduced risk of contagion outdoors based on new research. 

Funeral Preparations and Burials 

A significant debate among scholars emerged regarding the necessity of performing ghusl for the deceased. Initially, some opted to bury the deceased in body bags without traditional washing or shrouding, driven by mixed opinions on the potential toxicity and contagiousness of Covid-19-infected bodies. In the early stages, there was even a proposal to enforce the cremation of individuals who had passed away from Covid-19. However, this proposal was swiftly rejected and did not become an official policy. Notably, major international health organisations, including Public Health England, the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and health bodies in Australia and India, concluded that the risk of transmission from deceased bodies was minimal. 

Various viewpoints emerged, ranging from advocating simple tayammum upon the deceased to even permitting it over the body bag, while others staunchly opposed any ghusl or tayammum and criticised those who suggested otherwise. With many washing facilities in masjids and Islamic centres closing down, recommendations were made to transport the deceased directly from hospitals to the burial site. However, some masjids assumed the responsibility of providing ghusl for deceased individuals from afar, as facilities local to the deceased were unavailable. 

Delays in interring bodies became commonplace due to the surge in Covid-related deaths and limited resources, necessitating unusual measures, such as women in a state of menses performing the ghusl which would normally not be recommended. Volunteers were extensively trained to carry out the ghusl and shrouding, with some scholars promoting a streamlined method for washing Covid-deceased individuals while emphasising safety protocols. This entailed wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) for washing and thorough sanitisation of the washing area after each use. To address the shortage of storage, additional cold storage units were procured and positioned outside masjids

Cooperation between various Muslim groups was vital for the washing and burial of the deceased as there were variations in practices among different cemeteries and organisations. The London Muslim Funeral Directors and Cemeteries Group was established to unify Muslim cemetery policies concerning Covid-related issues. Certain cemeteries insisted on providing complete washing services and refused to bury bodies without proper preparation. However, some cemeteries refused to bury Covid-deceased individuals altogether. 

Due to the high number of deaths, many undertakers struggled with burying all the dead. Even with excavators and trying to extend the digging teams as much as possible, sufficient graves could not be dug in time to deal with all the bodies. To overcome this, scholars liasied with the relevant health care professionals and funeral directors to discuss the permissibility of mass burials. Practical solutions were provided regarding how to ensure a separation between marriageable and non-marriageable people (ghayr maḥrams and maḥrams) and different methods of managing mass burials such as extended trenches, single rows and multiple rows. 

Many families faced challenges as they were initially prohibited from attending the washing and burial ceremonies and later only a limited number of participants were permitted. A lot of families resorted to video calls to catch a final glimpse of their loved ones. Covid patients in hospitals often 

faced the heart-wrenching reality of dying alone, isolated from their families. Many of them would then have to be buried without their close family members being present as they themselves would be in isolation. As a result, some people conducted janāzah prayers in absentia. Unfortunately, a few opportunistic funeral directors took advantage of the whole situation by charging exorbitant fees just for transporting Covid-deceased individuals. 

Government Regulations and Sharīʿah Compliance 

There were many discussions that centred on the extent to which government regulations must be followed in Islamic practice, including whether beards could be shaved to wear special masks for NHS staff or public transport staff who were at a higher risk of exposure. The uncertainties of government regulations added complexity to individual and community decisions. 

Challenges of Educational Facilities 

The pandemic posed numerous challenges for educational institutions. During the initial phase of the lockdown, educational institutions were closed, suspending regular classes due to the uncertain duration of the lockdown. Notably, some remained fully closed from March to August 2020. However, as it became evident that the lockdown would prolong, institutions began a gradual transition towards online learning. Many Dār al-ʿUlūms encountered difficulties adapting to this new mode of teaching, primarily because they lacked the necessary infrastructure, technological readiness, and tech-savvy teachers. Classes with young children faced additional challenges as these students struggled to maintain full concentration during prolonged screen sessions. 

Parents faced significant challenges with the shift to online schooling, particularly those with multiple children. Providing individual devices and separate quiet spaces for each child proved to be a struggle for many. Moreover, limited internet bandwidth prevented all their children from being online simultaneously. The financial burden added to their woes as some parents found themselves unable to pay fees due to unemployment. This led to requests for fee reductions since the amount of online teaching time was reduced. On the other hand, parents also sought extra Islamic classes for their children who now had more free time. 

Upon reopening, schools, madrasahs, and Dār al-ʿUlūms encountered significant challenges. They were required to establish „Covid bubbles‟, comprising of students from the same class. They had to ensure that each bubble remained isolated from others to minimise the risk of transmission. This presented a particular challenge for boarding schools where students were not previously allocated to rooms with their classmates, and they also had different classmates for Islamic studies and academic subjects. This necessitated substantial adjustments. 

Students were required to isolate if a classmate tested positive for Covid-19. This affected students attending both regular schools and madrasahs, impacting their learning. Many parents were apprehensive about sending their children into the madrasah

Miscellaneous Concerns 

Initially, there was some reluctance about whether to include the phrase “pray in your homes” in the adhān. However, many masjids did eventually incorporate it for some time. 

Some imāms and muʾadhdhins experienced financial hardships during the period when masjids were closed. Smaller masjids relied on donations of the regular attendees, and with people no longer attending the masjids, there were insufficient funds available to cover their costs. 

Foreign students experienced financial crises, with many of them losing their jobs and becoming unable to afford rent or food. Food banks were established in various locations by charities and local masjids to address the growing need for food assistance. They became a common resource, with long lines of people waiting for rations. 

There was a growing concern about the heightened demand for counselling, particularly related to marriage, bereavement, and depression. In response, there was a surge in the number of online lectures and classes aimed at uplifting people’s spirits and helping them cope with the challenges of this trying period. 

Challenges Post-Pandemic 

Rekindling the bond of the masses with the masjid presented a formidable challenge that required a substantial amount of time and effort to fully restore. Many masjids held special programs to bring their regular attendees back and restore confidence that it was safe to return. However, even up till two years from masjid reopening, a few worshippers still choose to bring their private prayer mats with some even wearing wear face masks. 

Closing Remarks 

In this document, we have provided overview of the diverse challenges, opinions, and adaptations of UK Muslims in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We hope that this historical record of such a unique and unprecedented time in the world may serve of some benefit for Muslims to work collaboratively in overcoming similar challenges in the future. 

Please note that the information provided in this document was based on the data available at the time of writing. There may be changes since then so local scholars and authorities should be contacted for the most up-to-date information and guidance. 

For detailed guidance on specific issues, please refer to the linked resources below. 

Guidance on Corona virus found on Fatwa Centre and Zamzam Academy 

1. Mass Burials and Washing: https://fatwacentre.org/death-and-burial/mass-burials-and-washing/ 

2. Using An Inhaler Whilst Fasting: https://fatwacentre.org/uncategorized/using-an-inhaler-whilst-fasting/ 

3. Covid 19 and refusing entry into masjid: https://fatwacentre.org/uncategorized/covid-19-and-refusing-entry-into-masjid/ 

4. Bathing (Ghusl) and Shrouding of COVID-19 Patients Who have Died: https://fatwacentre.org/death-and-burial/bathing-ghusl-and-shrouding-of-covid-19-patients-who-have-died/ 

5. Covid vaccines: https://fatwacentre.org/miscellaneous/covid-vaccines/ 

6. Dealing with the Loss of Loved Ones (COVID-19): https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2021/02/dealing-with-the-loss-of-loved-ones-covid-19/ 

7. Some advice and words of condolences for those that have lost loved ones during the outbreak of COVID-19. https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2021/02/dealing-with-the-loss-of-loved-ones-covid-19/ 

8. Urgent Need for Bathing the Dead: Open Your Facilities: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/urgent-need-for-bathing-the-dead-open-your-facilities-dr-mufti-abdur-rahman-ibn-yusuf/ 

9. Seeking God‟s Mercy during the CORONAVIRUS: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/seeking-gods-mercy-during-the-coronavirus/ 

10. Satans Plan During Ramadan during COVID-19 lock down: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/satans-plan-during-ramadan-dr-mufti-abdur-rahman-ibn-yusuf/ 

11. Can Eid Prayer be Done at Home: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/05/can-eid-prayer-be-done-at-home-dr-mufti-abdur-rahman-ibn-yusuf/ 

12. Bathing (Ghusl) and Shrouding of COVID-19 Patients Who have Died: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/03/bathing-ghusl-and-shrouding-of-covid-19-patients-who-have-died/ 

13. Get the Most out of the COVID-19 Lockdown: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/get-the-most-out-of-the-covid-19-lockdown/

14. Preparing Your Facility for Bathing a Deceased COVID-19 Patient | Madina Mosque Trust: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/preparing-your-facility-for-bathing-a-deceased-covid-19-patient-madina-mosque-trust/ 

15. The Ten Keys to Relief: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/the-ten-keys-to-relief-from-all-anxiety-grief-sadness-and-pandemics-dr-mufti-abdur-rahman/?playlist=14503 

16. Are the COVID-19 Dead Martyrs (Shaheed) and is Ghusl Necassary for Them?: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/are-the-covid-19-dead-martyrs-shaheed-and-is-ghusl-necassary-for-them-dr-mufti-abdur-rahman/ 

17. Virtual Prayer Congregations for Tarawih and Jumu‟a During COVID-19: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/virtual-prayer-congregations-for-tarawih-and-jumua-during-covid-19/ 

18. How to do Tarawih at Home During the Covid-19 Lockdown (Coronavirus): https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/how-to-do-tarawih-at-home-during-the-covid-19-lockdown-coronavirus-dr-mufti-abdur-rahman/ 

19. COVID or no COVID: Up to Allah: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2021/01/covid-or-no-covid-up-to-allah/ 

20. COVID-19 Resources: https://www.zamzamacademy.com/2020/04/covid-19-resource/ 

Useful Links 

Covid-19 Diary: https://islamicportal.co.uk/covid-19-diary/ 

Statement of senior UK scholars on Corona virus and Masjids (Urdu and English: https://islamicportal.co.uk/statement-of-senior-uk-scholars-on-coronavirus-and-masjids-urdu-and-english/ 

Islamic guidance on Coronavirus: https://islamicportal.co.uk/islamic-guidance-on-coronavirus/ 

  1. Covid-19 Diary (13 March 2022)
  2. Multiple Ṭawāf before ʿUmrah Ṭawāf or before ʿUmrah Saʿī (27 August 2021)
  3. Guidance for Masjids as legal restrictions end on 19 July 2021 (12 July 2021)
  4. Waṣiyyah if unable to perform obligatory Hajj (17 June 2021)
  5. Social Distancing in Masjids from 17 May 2021 (18 May 2021)
  6. Zakat for Oxygen Cylinders and Ventilators (1 May 2021)
  7. Covid-19 and Iʿtikāf (30 April 2021)
  8. Should toilets be open in Masjids during Covid-19? (5 April 2021)
  9. 2021 Ramadan and Eid Guidelines to Keep You, Your Family and Masjid Safe (11 March 2021)
  10. Tayammum for Covid-19 patients in hospitals (15 February 2021)
  11. Bounce Back Loan Query (15 February 2021)
  12. Adhān, Iqāmah and Taḥnīk for newborn during Covid-19 (29 January 2021)
  13. Do Covid-19 vaccines nullify the fast? (25 January 2021)
  14. Ḥadīth on disease and calamity not affecting those in the Masjid (21 January 2021)
  15. Should Masjids suspend communal worship? (20 January 2021)
  16. Is the Moderna Covid-19 vaccine Halal? (8 January 2021)
  17. Is it permissible to use the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine? (5 January 2021)
  18. Is the Pfzier BioNTech Covid-19 Vaccine Halal? (4 December 2020)
  19. Should Masjids remain open or close from 5 November? (4 November 2020)
  20. Travelling to Saudi Arabia without iḥrām due to Covid-19 regulations (29 October 2020)
  21. Covid-19: One metre or two metres distancing in Masjids (9 Sep 2020)
  22. Covid-19: Eid al-Aḍḥā Ṣalāh on 11 Dhū al-Ḥijjah (28 July 2020)
  23. Eid Ṣalāh in a town with no Masjid (27 July 2020)
  24. Can you donate Plasma for Covid-19? (21 July 2020)
  25. Covid-19: Uncertainty regarding Qurbānī abroad (13 July 2020)
  26. Covid-19: Status of performing Ṣalāh in the Masjids and restrictions (6 July 2020)
  27. Key points from Guidance on the safe use of Masjids from 4 July (30 June 2019)
  28. Covid-19: Hajj and Travel Refunds (25 June 2020)
  29. Covid-19: Congregational Ṣalāh in Masjids from 4 July (25 June 2019)
  30. Wearing a mask in iḥrām (14 June 2019)
  31. Should Masjids open on 15 June? (9 June 2019)
  32. 10 questions on the re-opening of Masjids (7 June 2020)
  33. Covid-19 – Global Qurbani Challenges (31 May 2020)
  34. Ḥadīth transmission via internet and phone (27 May 2020)
  35. Zakat on ʿUmrah, Hajj and travel refunds (26 May 2020)
  36. Covid-19: Visiting Cemetery on Eid day (22 May 2020)
  37. Covid-19: Eid Ṣalāh in the Garden (21 May 2020)
  38. Does Eid Ṣalāh require 2 or 4 people? (19 May 2020)
  39. Multiple Janāzah Ṣalāh due to Covid-19 (19 May 2020)
  40. Covid-19 – Miscellaneous Questions (17 May 2020)
  41. Basis of performing Eid Ṣalāh during lockdown (17 May 2020)
  42. Covid-19: Eid Ṣalāh during lockdown (13 May 2020)
  43. Covid-19 – Businesses, employment and loans (10 May 2020)
  44. Can men perform iʿtikāf at home during the lockdown? (9 May 2020)
  45. Adhān wording during lockdown (5 May 2020)
  46. Widow visiting deceased husband in Masjid complex (2 May 2020)
  47. 10 Covid-19 related Q&As (27 April 2020)
  48. Will Covid-19 end on 12 May? (24 April 2020)
  49. Can Munfarid recite Quran loudly? (24 April 2020)
  50. Does Covid-19 test break the fast? (24 April 2020)
  51. Should graduate doctors start work early? (19 April 2020)
  52. Can child lead Tarawih Salah (An old Fatwa relevant for now)
  53. Correcting mistakes in Tarāwīḥ Ṣalāh (19 April 2020)
  54. Wife performing Ṣalāh next to husband (19 April 2020)
  55. Tarāwīḥ Ṣalāh during lockdown (19 April 2020)
  56. Iʿtikāf during lockdown (18 April 2020)
  57. Covid-19 and guidelines for Ramadan and Eid (15 April 2020)
  58. One third in Waṣiyyah after debts (13 April 2020)
  59. Fasting in Ramadan for Covid-19 doctors and nurses (6 April 2020)
  60. Tilting Covid-19 bodies in the coffin (4 April 2020)
  61. Nikāḥ during lockdown (2 April 2020)
  62. Burial of Covid-19 bodies and Ghusl (1 April 2020)
  63. Social Distancing Ḥadīth Authenticity (31 March 2020)
  64. Coronavirus: Jumuʿah Ṣalāh or Ẓuhr Ṣalāh (26 March 2020)
  65. Can non-Muslim bathe the Covid-19 deceased? (23 March 2020)
  66. Self-Isolation, Social Distancing and Transforming the Home (23 March 2020)
  67. Coronavirus and Handling Dead Bodies (21 March 2020)
  68. Statement of senior UK scholars on Coronavirus and Masjids (Urdu and English) (21 March 2020)
  69. Masjids limiting congregational Ṣalāh due to Coronavirus (Update) (20 March 2020)
  70. Ghusl for Coronavirus infected bodies (17 March 2020)
  71. Coronavirus: Should Masjids close? (17 March 2020)
  72. No female to bathe female deceased (16 March 2020)
  73. Burial of female whose family is in isolation (16 March 2020)
  74. How can Coronavirus be stopped? (16 March 2020)
  75. Hand Sanitisers containing alcohol (15 March 2020)
  76. Wearing mask in Ṣalāh (15 March 2020)
  77. Burying multiple bodies in one grave due to Covid-19 (15 March 2020)
  78. Delaying a burial due to Coronavirus (15 March 2020)
  79. Coronavirus deaths and ruling on Ghusl (13 March 2020)
  80. Coronavirus: Should Jumuʿah Ṣalāh be cancelled? (12 March 2020)
  81. Coronavirus and ʿUmrah: two scenarios (6 March 2020)
  82. Coronavirus Advice – 10 Questions regarding Coronavirus (4 March 2020)
  83. Is Iḥrām necessary if entry to Makkah is uncertain due to Coronavirus? (27 Feb 2020)
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